Labeling and delinquency
The present study examined a procedure for measuring perceived labeling. An index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. The results provided partial support for the hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels for their self-concepts will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling variables were significant predictors of general and serious delinquency but did not predict drug-related offenses.
Adams, M., Robertson, C., Gray-Ray, P., & Ray, M. (2003). Labeling and delinquency. Adolescence. Retrieved from https://ir.una.edu/inte_facpub/1