Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 1998


This is a study of the Democratic-Republican Societies--a collection of more than fifty popular clubs established throughout the young United States in the last decade of the eighteenth century that drew together a cross-section of early American citizenry--farmers, artisans, mechanics, and common laborers, as well as professionals, middling politicians, and landed elites. The societies' protests of of the policies of the Washington administration demonstrate that Jeffersonians from many walks of life fused and thereby transformed the variegated ideologies that pervaded early America, ideologies which historians have labeled “liberal” and “republican.”

Publication Title

Journal of the Early Republic